I believe, for man to have acquired his upright stance, his brain had to have enlarged in capacity and critical thinking. There is also no proof of a permanent home area that they based themselves.
Additional features of apes amongst hominids, comprising for instance, assemblages and metacarpals that are curved, are adaptations to both upper limb hanging and erect climbing. In the analysis of these competing hypotheses, timing is key since the activities of the early man differed according to the time in which he lived.
The hominid bipedalism may have started as a feeding posture involving arm hanging and vertical climbing but it was more and more advanced and refined to efficiency. Another theory is that of the Behavioral model that was developed by Owen C.
Among the three hypotheses discussed in this paper, all have been criticized fully. The first hypothesis is the postural feeding hypothesis that was formulated by a scientist known as Kevin D.
In addition, there were a larger variety and greater numbers of antelope, pigs, monkeys, giraffes, elephants, and other animals for adventurous hominins to scavenge and perhaps kill. It also indicated that the offspring would likely be more resilient and have a superior rate of procreation as compared to its parents.
Had bipedalism not have taken place, maybe, just maybe, man would still be in the forest. The hypothesis suggests that the postures that were taken by the hominid while gathering food such as hanging of the arms and climbing vertically on the trees were sufficient to influence not only the human anatomy but also his stance to that of an upright one hence the bipedalism.
The carnivores, whether reptiles, mammals or fish were not initially as they are now. The initial changes toward an upright posture were probably related more to standing, reaching, and squatting than to extended periods of walking and running. Third, they utilize their forelimbs for other purposes aside from locomotion.
In the legs the femurs thighbones are relatively long and are set Evolution of bipedality in humans essay apart at the hips than they are at the knees. He theorized also that the bipedalism reduced the rate of water loss by reducing the evaporative cooling temperatures thus helping in the retention of body water.
The femurs of quadrupedal great apes, on the other hand, do not converge toward the knees, and the femoral shafts lack telltale angling. The vertical posture that man took also reduced the rate of direct solar exposure when the sun was the hottest and with the highest radiation.
The development of the bipedal locomotion and an upright posture by the early hominids was critical for their survival since they used their fore limbs to search for food. Scientists believe that the ability to walk on two feet and balance requires concentration from the brain and due the human brains.
Among these, the most likely ancestor of great apes and humans may be either Kenyapithecus or Griphopithecus. The human pelvis is unique among primates in having the ilia curved forward so that the inner surfaces face one another instead of being aligned sideways, as in apes and other quadrupeds.
The Journal of experimental biology, 9 The fact that the hominids were adapted to hang their arms when searching for food can also be supported by the fact that this was a routine task.
These limbs or legs are mostly the rear ones and the type of motion qualifies the living organism to be called a biped. Savannah and Mosaic Theories The very first endeavor of trying to elucidate the aspect of evolution was by Darwin through the Savannah theory.
The Behavioral model hypothesis has also received criticism. You can place an order similar to this with us. If this is done, the timings can be compared to the pressures that the hypotheses claim man to have gone through and if they happened in their corresponding ages.
Remarkably little muscular effort is expended to stand in place. But large cats, dogs, and hyenas also flourished in the new environments; they not only would provide meat for scavenging hominins but also would compete with and probably prey upon them. Nonetheless, taking into account that in the end it was acknowledged that all of the attributes aforementioned, as well as bipedalism, could have been chosen against the savannah ecology, a great of the proponents of this theory lacked merit.
However, the shortcoming of this theory is its argument that hominids had a monogamous arrangement of mating as it is an aspect that is not in line with the sexual dimorphism in the size of hominids.
This theory was questioned in that there was said to be other animals, specifically quadruped ones, who reached up to the trees to get their food and can also stand on their hind legs when doing so. Among evolutionary models that stress the Eurasian species, some consider Graecopithecus to be ancestral only to the human lineage, containing AustralopithecusParanthropus, and Homowhereas others entertain the possibility that Graecopithecus is close to the great-ape ancestry of Pan chimpanzees and bonobos and Gorilla as well.
Several differences allow the human being to walk erect on two legs with a striding gait rather than move in a knuckle-walking fashion like the gorilla. The evolution of bipedality and loss of functional body hair in hominids.
It is hard to consent that bigger male size in hominids did not come along with superior difference in male than female procreative achievement and some magnitude of polygyny.
Specifically, with respect to primates that are not human beings, sexual dimorphism with respect to the size of the body is ideally elucidated by sexual selection owing to sexual dissimilarities in procreative potential. The Miocene Epoch was characterized by major global climatic changes that led to more seasonal conditions with increasingly colder winters north of the Equator.
Thus, all males tried to walk on two limbs to get mates Hunt, Various Eurasian and African Miocene primates have been advocated as possible ancestors to the early hominins, which came on the scene during the Pliocene Epoch 5.
The argument in this model was the ape aforementioned started subsisting in a mixed environment consisting of forest, swamp and savannah.The essay aims to critically discuss the study of human evolution which includes some of the species that evolved over the years before we now have our species, the history of psychology and the different prominent figures that are responsible for psychology being the field it is today.
Excerpt from Essay: Bipedalism – Human Evolution Introduction Human evolution takes into account the biotic as well as cultural development of humans.
The Evolution of Bipedalism. Humans can perform all these movements by virtue of them being bipeds. There are several hypotheses of how and why humans developed to become bipeds according to the evolution theory some of which shall be discussed in this essay.
The evolution of bipedality and loss of functional body hair in hominids. Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more.
Get started now! Bipedalism is a capacity, mostly associated to humans, to use two legs in locomotion. Its origin has been given importance and served as a topic of long debate among experts due to the possibility that this form of locomotion gave way for the development of modern human characteristics.
This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. You can view samples of our professional work here. There are over ten hypotheses as to how and why bipedalism evolved in humans and when.
Bipedalism evolved well before the large human brain or the development of stone tools. Possible reasons for the.Download